Influence of Wars and Blockade on the Environmental Living Components in Iraq

Prof. Dr. Hussain A. Al-Saadi

Professor of Ecology and Pollution

University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

The environment of Iraq was exposed to the greatest aggression ever known in history since 1991 (during the second Gulf war), followed by severe blockade. Huge changes in the environment of Iraq as well as the neighboring countries were took place. All different kind of pollutants were created such as microbial, electro-magnetic, chemical and depleted Uranium. These already affected all different living components of the environment such as plants, animals and man. Several thousands were died monthly due to shortage in food, medicine and the other essential living requirements.

Various types of pollution (air, water and soil) as a result of wars as well as the blockade already affected all aspects of life from immediate to long term damages.

The present study illustrates the effect of such aggression and continuous sanction on the main ecological living components indicated above. As it is well known that war created always unbalanced nature in its ecological components, leads to the ecological pollution and affects negatively on environment security of the area.

A total of more than 141900 tons of different bombs was thrown on Iraq during 42 days in the second Gulf war, equivalent to 7 nuclear bombs which were thrown on Heroshima, Japan (1). The basic structure of the Iraqi environment was destroyed included the citizens, their animals, agricultural lands, houses, workshop places, electrical supply, drinking water refinement stations, food storages, dams, schools, universities, institutes, hospitals, factories etc.

On other hand, these bombardment on Iraq equivalent to more than 4.51014 Kcal (2). Such thermal energy equal to 5107 Kwatt/hr. which is enough to illuminate USA for one year. This amount of energy existed in Iraqi atmosphere, gave 81060 photons enough to ionize the atmosphere during that period and liberated the free roots of oxygen which react quickly in the aqueous medium in the living organisms included mankind and formed chemical compounds having free roots, and their accumulation will give hazard and toxic effects (long-range), known as electromagnetic pollution caused several dangerous diseases such as cancer, toxicity of heart cells, cell death, high blood pressure and meningitis(2).

The main topics of the present study will be the following:

1. Species diversity

2. Agricultural pest and diseases

3. Plants

4. Animals

5. Human

The effect of wars and the severe blockade on Iraq will be illustrated by many documented data and references on the above components.



Prof. Dr. Hussain A.N. Al-Saadi

- Professor in Ecology &Pollution at University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

- Born in 1944, Iraq.

- B.Sc. 1965 in Soils & Field Crops, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq.

- M.Sc. 1970and Ph.D. 1972 in Plant Ecophysiology, Utah State University, USA.

- Training coarse in Hydrobiology, Rostock University, Germany and in Environmental Pollution, British Cultural Council, London, England.

- Working at several Universities such as University of Basrah, University of Baghdad and University of Salah Al-Dene in Iraq, Utah State University in USA and Ecole Normale Superior, Alger University in Algeria.

- Administrative experience in different Universities (18 years), such as Head of the Department of Biology, Acting Dean of Science, Vice President for Scientific Affairs and Acting President.

- Published more than 160 papers and articles in local and international Journals, as will as 15 Books in the field of Ecology & Pollution.

- Supervised more than 30 M.Sc. Theses and Ph.D. Dissertations.

- Member of manyScientific Societies in and outside the country.

- Participated in more than 90 Conferences and Symposiums.